Herbs Medicine a List of Herbs Q-U

R

Raspberry Leaf

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Raspberry Leaf is used to prepare the uterus for labour (when taken from the second trimester onwards) and to ensure healthy uterine function. It is also used for period pain, morning sickness (which extends into the second trimester), uterine prolapse, uterine haemorrhage, gastrointestinal bleeding, mouth ulcers, inflammation of the stomach and diarrhoea. Topically Raspberry Leaf can be used for tonsillitis, conjunctivitis and a sore throat. Traditionally Raspberry Leaf was also used for dysentery, cholera, haemorrhage from the stomach and stomach complaints effecting children. Topically it was also used for ulcers and wounds.

Contraindications: none known.

Red Clover Flower

Red Clover Flower is used to treat chronic skin disorders such as dermatitis, eczema, ulcers and psoriasis. It is also used to treat respiratory conditions, especially coughs and bronchitis, menopausal symptoms and as an adjuvant therapy (increases the chances of a cure) in cancer. Traditionally Red Clover was also used in the treatment of whooping cough, laryngitis and burns.

Contraindications: none known.

Rehmannia

Rehmannia is used in the treatment of adrenal exhaustion, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases, asthma, hives, fever, constipation, skin rashes, diabetes, insomnia, metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding not as a result of menstruation), haematuria (blood in the urine), nosebleeds, night sweats, chronic nephritis (kidney inflammation) in combination with the herb Astragalus, osteoarthritis and to support the withdrawal of corticosteroid drugs. Traditionally Rehmannia is also used for haemorrhage, the coughing up of blood, skin eruptions, mouth ulcers and fever (with a red tongue and thirst).

Contraindications: none known, caution in pregnancy.

Reishi Mushroom or Ganoderma Mushroom

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Reishi is very beneficial in the treatment of chronic infections, chronic immune deficiency, to slow ageing, as a tonic to the elderly, convalescence, HIV and AIDS, autoimmune diseases, allergies, bronchitis, asthma and liver disorders. It is also beneficial for rheumatoid arthritis, maintaining a healthy uterus, heart disease, palpitations, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, nervous disorders, insomnia, post viral syndromes, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Reishi is also used to prevent cirrhosis and fatty liver due to alcohol abuse, as an adjuvant therapy (increases the chances of a cure) in cancer and to improve immune function during chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Contraindications: none known.

This herb is used in our Immune Boost Herbal Blend.

Reishi Mushroom - may prevent and treat allergies 1. Reishi Mushroom may help to protect against some forms of cancer including bladder, colon and liver cancers 2, 3, 4, 5. Reishi Mushrooms may be useful in assisting with the treatment or as an adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma’s and lymphoma’s 6, 7, 8. Reishi Mushrooms may suppress the proliferation of leukaemia cells (by stimulating the release of cancer-suppressing immune system chemicals called cytokines 7, 9. Reishi Mushrooms may stimulate the general function of the Immune System including immune cells such as antibodies, helper T-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and the natural killer lymphocytes 10, 11. Reishi Mushrooms may counteract much of the damage caused to the immune system by radiation therapy including exposure to gamma-rays 10. Reishi Mushrooms may alleviate the pain associated with shingles and may prevent post-herpetic neuralgia in shingles 12, 13.

References:
1. Nogami, M., et al.  [Studies on Ganoderma lucidum. VII. Anti-allergic effect. (2).]  Yakugaku Zasshi.  106(7):594-599, 1986.
2. Gao, Y., et al.  Antitumor activity and underlying mechanisms of ganopoly, the refined polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, in mice.  Immunol Invest.  34(2):171-198, 2005.
3. Yuen, J. W., et al.  Telomerase-associated apoptotic events by mushroom ganoderma lucidum on premalignant human urothelial cells.  Nutrition and Cancer.  60(1):109-119, 2008.
4. Chen, X., et al.  Monitoring of immune responses to a herbal immuno-modulator in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.  Int Immunopharmacol.  6(3):499-508, 2006.
5. Lin, S. B., et al.  Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest.  Life Sciences.  72(21):2381-2390, 2003.
6. Hu, H., et al.  Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell.  Int J Cancer.  102(3):250-253, 2002.
7. Muller, C. I., et al.  Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells.  Leuk Res.  2006.
8. Jiang, J., et al.  Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3.  Int J Oncol.  24(5):1093-1099, 2004.
9. Lieu, C. W., et al.  The effect of Ganoderma lucidum on induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells.  Anticancer Research.  12(4):1211-1215, 1992.
10. Chen, W. C., et al.  Effects of ganoderma lucidum and krestin on subset T-cell in spleen of gamma-irradiated mice.  American Journal of Chinese Medicine.  23(3-4):289-298, 1995.
11. Lin, Z. B.  Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum.  J Pharmacol Sci.  99(2):144-153, 2005.
12. Hijikata, Y., et al.  Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain:  a pilot clinical trial.  American Journal of Chinese Medicine.  33(4):517-523, 2005.
13. Hijikata, Y., et al.  Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on postherpetic neuralgia.  American Journal of Chinese Medicine.  26(3-4):375-381, 1998.

Rhubarb Root

Rhubarb Root is used to treat constipation, dysentery, gastrointestinal bleeding, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, acute pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), endometriosis, nephritis (kidney inflammation), mild renal failure and to treat peptic ulcers by destroying Helicobacter Pylori.

Contraindications: short term use only, laxative in high doses. Caution with laxative doses in irritable bowel syndrome, pregnancy, lactation and gastrointestinal inflammation. Caution in children.

Ribwort

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Ribwort is used to treat upper respiratory tract catarrh, chronic sinus, hay fever, catarrhal deafness, sinus headache, sore throat, serous otitis media (fluid in the middle ear), lower respiratory catarrh, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, coughs, peptic ulcer and gastritis. Topically Ribwort can be used for leg ulcers, varicose veins and a sore or inflamed throat.

Contraindications: none known.

Rosemary

Rosemary is used to improve memory, concentration and mental performance and it enhances phase 1 and phase 2 liver detoxification pathways. It is beneficial in treating headache, depression, debility, circulatory weakness, low blood pressure, dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain), Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and ADHD. Rosemary is also used to slow the ageing process, improve liver and gall bladder function, protect the liver cells against damage and prevent atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). It also has antioxidant properties. Topically Rosemary can be used for wound healing, alleviating symptoms of rheumatic disease and circulatory problems, as a mild antiseptic, myalgia (muscle pain) sciatica, hair loss and neuralgia (nerve pain). Traditionally it was also used for flatulence, anorexia, poor digestion and migraine headaches.

Contraindications: none known.

This herb is used in our Liver Detox Herbal Blend.

Rosemary - possesses many potent antioxidant properties 1. Rosemary regulates phase 1 and phase 2 liver detoxification pathways 2. Rosemary may protect the liver from toxins and enhance the liver’s metabolism of endogenous (own) oestrogens 3,4.

References:
1. Aruoma, O. I., et al.  Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: carnosol and carnosic acid.  Xenobiotica. 22(2):257-268, 1992.
2. 136 Debersac P, Vernevaut MF, Amiot MJ et al.  Food Chem Toxicol 2001; 39(2): 109-117
3. Weiss RF, Herbal Medicine English ed, Beaconsfield, UK, 1988, Beaconsfield Publishers
4. Zhu BT, et al: Carcinogenesis 19(10):1821-1827, 1998.

S

Sage

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Sage is used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, excessive sweating, night sweats, dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain), flatulence, improving memory and concentration, Alzheimer’s disease, fatigue, tension headache, nervous debility, nervous exhaustion, fever, and to inhibit lactation (secretion of breast milk). Sage tea is and excellent remedy for a sore throat, laryngitis (loss of voice), gingivitis (gum disease), tonsillitis and inflammation of the tongue and stomach. Traditionally Sage was also used for kidney disorders, joint pain and poor digestion.

Contraindications: pregnancy and lactation (except to stop the flow of breast milk). Caution in long-term use.

This herb is used in our Digestive Support Herbal Blend.

Sage - has traditionally been used for the treatment of flatulence, dyspepsia and debilitated digestive system 1,2.

References:
1. British Herbal Medicine Association’s scientific Committee: British herbal pharmacopeia Bournemouth 1983 BHMA.
2. Felter HW, Lloyd JU: Kings American dispensary, ed 18, rev 3, Portland, 1905, reprinted 1983, Eclectic Medical Publications.

Sarsaparilla

Sarsaparilla is used to treat chronic skin disorders such as eczema, dermatitis and psoriasis as well as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, nephritis (inflammation of the kidneys), rheumatism, debility, fatigue and physical stress. Traditionally Sarsaparilla was also used in the treatment of syphilis, dropsy, as a male tonic and as an adjuvant therapy (increases the chances of cure) for leprosy.

Contraindications: may cause or aggravate gastro-oesophageal reflux.

Saw Palmetto

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Saw Palmetto is used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate), chronic prostatitis (inflammation of the prostrate), inflammation of the genitourinary tract, orchitis (inflammation of the testicles), cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), pelvic inflammatory disease, salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes), underdeveloped mammary glands, male impotence, testicular atrophy (wastage) and to treat male and female infertility. Traditionally Saw Palmetto was also used as an aphrodisiac and to treat irritating coughs, chronic bronchial coughs, whooping cough, laryngitis (loss of voice), asthma, acute catarrh, to improve digestion and as a tonic to the nervous system.

Contraindications: caution with concurrent use of warfarin.

Schisandra

Schisandra is a wonderful herb used to enhance phase 1 and phase 2 detoxification pathways of the liver and to treat chronic hepatitis, chronic liver damage, fatigue, physical stress, debility, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, bedwetting, asthma, chronic cough, frequent urination, nocturnal emissions (wet dreams), spermatorrhoea (loss of semen) and to assist with childbirth. Schisandra also has the ability to improve physical performance and endurance and improve the body’s resistance to the effects of stress. Traditionally Schisandra was also used to treat leucorrhoea (vaginal discharge), diarrhoea, shortness of breath, feeble pulse, diabetes, heart palpitations and insomnia.

Contraindications: pregnancy (except to assist with childbirth), early stages of rash or cough.

This herb is used in our Liver Stress Herbal Blend, Liver Detox Herbal Blend, and Kidney Support Herbal Blend.

Schisandra;

- May improve the detoxifying capacity of the liver 1. Schisandra may reduce the toxic damage caused to the liver by liver toxins 2. Schisandra may stimulate liver regeneration 3. Schisandra has high levels of antioxidants more potent than Vitamin E 4. Schisandra may be useful in acute and chronic liver disease including hepatitis 5. Schisandra may improve a poor functioning liver 1. Traditionally Schisandra was used not necessarily as a liver herb but an adaptogen which is a herb that supports the whole body. 

- May protect the kidneys from chemical toxicity and enhance kidney mitochondrial antioxidant status 6. Long term use of Schisandra may reduce age related impairments in kidney mitochondrial function and antioxidant status 7. Schisandra may reduce gentamicin (antibiotic) induced kidney toxicity 6.

References:
1. Mak DH et al: Mol Cell Biochem 165(2): 161-165, 1996.
2. Hikino, H and Kiso, Y Natural Products for Liver Disease in Wagner H et al, (eds) Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, Vol 2, Academic Press  (1998).
3. Kubo, S: Planta Medica 58, 489 (1992)
4. Lu, H and Liu, G T: Planta Medica 58, 311 (1992)
5. Wagner H, Hikino, H, Farnsworth NR, eds: Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, London , Academic Press  (1988)
6. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM. Schisandrin B enhances renal mitochondrial antioxidant status, functional and structural integrity and protects against gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Biol Pharm. 2008 Apr:31(4):602-5.
7. Ko KM, Chen N, Leung HY, Leong EP, Poon MK, Chiu PY. Long Term Schisandrian B treatment mitigates age-related impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues, and improves the survival of aging C57BL/6J mice. Biofactors. 2008;34(4):331-42.

Shatavari

Shatavari is a herb originating from India and is used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, promoting lactation (breast milk), promoting conception, sexual debility in both sexes, as a tonic to the female reproductive system, for infertility (in both sexes), as an aphrodisiac (especially for women) and for male impotence. It is also used to improve appetite in children and to treat infections, diarrhoea and immune suppression. Traditionally Shatavari was also used as a nutritive tonic and for leucorrhoea (vaginal discharge), gonorrhoea, herpes, dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain), dysentery, stomach ulcers and hyperacidity.

Contraindications: none known.

Shitake Mushroom

This herb is used in our Immune Boost Herbal Blend.

Shitake Mushroom - is an edible Japanese mushroom with a full-bodied meaty flavour that grows on the wood of dead deciduous trees. Shiitake Mushroom may enhance the function of neutrophils and natural killer cell lnymphocytes 1, 2. Shiitake Mushroom may also provide protection against the influenza Type A virus 3.

References:
1. Sia, G. M., et al.  Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line.  Phytotherapy Research. 13(2):133-137, 1999.
2. Cochran, K. W., et al.  Botanical sources of influenza inhibitors.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 515-520, 1966.
3. Suzuki, M., et al.  Antitumor and immunological activity of lentinan in comparison with LPS. Intl J Immunopharmacol.  16(5-6):463-468, 1994.

Siberian Ginseng

Siberian Ginseng is used to improve physical stamina, exercise tolerance, mental performance and concentration. It is also beneficial in decreasing physical stress and in treating fatigue, insomnia, mild depression, convalescence, debility, chronic immune deficiency, post viral syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Siberian Ginseng is also used to decrease the side-effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer and as a tonic to the elderly. It is also used as an adjuvant therapy (improves the chances of a cure) of cancer and dysentery. Traditionally Siberian Ginseng was also used to strengthen qi, improve the function of the spleen and kidneys, to calm nerves and in the treatment of anorexia, lower back and knee pain, dream disturbed sleep and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Contraindications: avoid during acute phase of infection.

This herb is used in our Immune Boost Herbal Blend.

Siberian Ginseng - may stimulate or enhance the overall function of the immune system 1. Siberian Ginseng may alleviate allergies 2. Siberian Ginseng may help to prevent bacterial and viral diseases especially during periods of stress 3. Siberian Ginseng may also inhibit the replication of rhinoviruses which causes the common cold; inhibit the replication of the influenza A virus that causes influenza and the respiratory syncytial virus 4. Siberian Ginseng may help to prevent and treat some forms of cancer and inhibit the metastasis of existing cancer and may counteract the toxic side effects of chemotherapy 5. Siberian Ginseng may enhance the function of white blood cells in cancer patients and healthy people alike 5, 6. Siberian Ginseng may increase the number of Helper T-Cells and natural killer cells 7. Siberian Ginseng may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for cancer, to improve immune function and decrease the side effects from orthodox therapy 8.

References:
1. Baranov, A. I.  Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union:  recent trends in the Soviet literature.  J Ethnopharmacology.  6(3):339-353, 1982.
2. Jeong, H. J., et al.  Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.  Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.  23(1):107-117, 2001.
3. Eleutherococcus - a herbal adaptogen.  Mediherb Professional Newsletter.  36:1-2, 1993.
4. Glatthaar-Saalmuller, B., et al.  Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus.  Antiviral Research.  50:223-228, 2001.
5. Kupin, V. I., et al.  [Stimulation of the immunological reactivity of cancer patients by Eleutherococcus extract].  Vopr Onkol.  32(7):21-26, 1986.
6. Brekham, I. I., et al.  Ann Rev Pharmacol.  9:419, 1969.
7. Bohn, B., et al.  Flow-cytometric studies with Eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent.  Arzneimittelforschung.  37(10):1193-1196, 1987.
8. Szolomicki J, et al: phytother res 14(1):30-35, 2000.

Skullcap

Skullcap is used to treat hyperactivity, irritability and emotional stress, anxiety, premenstrual syndrome, insomnia, nervous fatigue, physical or mental tiredness, epilepsy, tension headaches, depression, tremor and neuralgia (nerve pain). Traditionally Skullcap was also used in the treatment of hysteria, chorea (involuntary muscle movements), as an infusion to help children with teething pain and in cardiac disorders (resulting from nervous causes, particularly those with an intermittent pulse).

Contraindications: none known.

Slippery Elm

Slippery Elm is a fantastic soothing herb particularly for the gastro intestinal tract and is used in the treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastro-oesophageal reflux, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, diverticulitis, gastrointestinal inflammation, haemorrhoids or anal fissures and to modify bowel flora.

Contraindications: in intestinal obstruction, take with plenty of water and take at least two hours away from prescription drugs.

St John’s Wort

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

St John’s Wort is used worldwide in the treatment of mild to medium forms of depression as well as anxiety, irritability, emotional stress, obsessive-compulsive disorders, seasonal affective disorder, enhancing mood and improving aerobic endurance capacity in athletes (when combined with vitamin E). It is also beneficial for menopausal symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, neuralgia (nerve pain), sciatica, autoimmune diseases and increasing nocturnal melatonin plasma levels making it helpful for insomnia. St John’s Wort is also used in the treatment and prevention of viruses (envelope viruses) such as cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles and hepatitis viruses. Traditionally St John’s Wort was also used in the treatment of hyperactivity, hysteria, fibrositis, shock, haemorrhage, diarrhoea, jaundice, chronic urinary conditions, menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) and externally as oil for wounds, ulcers and swelling.

Contraindications:not to be solely relied on in severe depression, high hyperforin (active ingredient) preparations (such as tablets), contraindicated with the following drugs: HIV drugs, methadone, anticoagulants, oral contraceptive pill, digoxin, cyclosporine, imatinib, irinotecan and verapamil. Caution with all other drugs. Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight.

This herb is used in our Cortisol Calm Herbal Blend.

St John's Wort - Studies reported that rats fed with St John’s Wort for three weeks had significantly lowered serum cortisol levels than rats not fed with St John’s Wort 1

References:
1. Winterhof, H., et al.  Pharmaceutic investigations of the antidepressant effect of Hypericum perforatum L.  In:  Phytopharmaka in Forschung unf klinischer Anwendung.  Loew, D.  Steinkopff Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Darmstadt, Germany.  1995:S39-S52.

St Mary’s Thistle or Milk Thistle

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

St Mary’s Thistle is a premier herb used by herbalists in the treatment of liver and gall bladder issues. It is used in the treatment of liver damage, liver repair, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis A, B and C, fatty liver, chronic active hepatitis, gallstones and digestive liver insufficiency. It is also beneficial in treating dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain), abdominal bloating, constipation, flatulence, flatulent colic, nausea, type II diabetes, haemochromatosis and metabolic syndrome or syndrome X. St Mary’s Thistle is also used to reduce heavy-metals, oxidative stress (free radical damage), food allergies, food sensitivities, death camp mushroom poisoning, to reduce anaesthesia toxicity and to decrease the side-effects of chemotherapy. Topically St Mary’s Thistle may be protective against chemical carcinomas and UVB radiation induced skin tumours. Traditionally St Mary’s Thistle was also used for pleurisy, snakebite, dropsy and a poultice was used for the treatment of certain types of cancers.

Contraindications: avoid in known allergy.

This herb is used in our Liver Stress Herbal BlendLiver Detox Herbal Blend, Kidney Support Herbal Blend and Dieback Support Herbal Blend.

St Mary's Thistle;

- May help to stimulate the flow and production of bile and to prevent gallstones 1,2. St Mary’s Thistle may alleviate a congested liver 3. St Mary’s Thistle may stimulate the regeneration of the liver and also protect the liver from the toxic effects of many poisons 4. St Mary’s Thistle protects the liver against the toxicity of solvent carbon tetrachloride and alcohol 5. St Mary’s Thistle may help to prevent and treat cirrhosis of the liver 6. St Mary’s Thistle may be an effective treatment for fatty liver 7. The liver function of hepatitis patients may improve after three to six months treatment with St Mary’s Thistle 8. St Mary’s Thistle may protect the liver from the toxic effects of excessive iron 9. St Mary’s Thistle may accelerate the recovery from jaundice 10. St Mary’s Thistle may protect the liver from the potentially lethal effects of excessive paracetamol ingestion. Traditionally St Mary’s Thistle is used for jaundice, liver and gallbladder complaints, hepatitis, enlarged liver and gallstones.

- May stimulate the regeneration of the kidneys and may protect the kidneys from the toxic effects of many poisons 11. St Mary’s Thistle contains potent antioxidants that may protect the kidneys from ischemia (lack of blood flow) and reperfusion injury (damage to tissue caused when blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of ischemia) 12

- Contains a substance called Silymarin, which has been shown to be able to help regenerate the liver and protect the liver from toxic side-effects of many poisons including alcohol. St Mary's Thistle helps to prevent the depletion of glutathione in liver cells 13,14,15

References:
1. Bone, K.  How to Prescribe Herbal Medicines.  MediHerb Pty Ltd.  1992:45.

2. Nassuato, G., et al.  Effect of silibinin on biliary lipid composition.  Experimental and clinical study.  J Hepatol.  12(3):290-1295, 1991.
3. Crocenzi, F. A., et al.  Preventive effect of silymarin against taurolithocholate-induced cholestasis in the rat.  Biochem Pharmacol.  66(2):355-364, 2003.
4. Halim, A. B., et al.  Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in experimentally-induced liver damage.  Ann Clin Biochem. 34:656-663, 1997.
5. Das, S. K., et al.  Protective effects of silymarin, a milk thistle (Silybium marianum) derivative on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver.  Indian J Biochem Biophys.  43(5):306-311, 2006.6. Ferenci, P., et al.  Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.  J Hepatol.  9:105-113, 1989.
7. Luper, S.  A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease:  part 1.  Alternative Medicine Review. 3(6), 1998.

8. Magliulo, E., et al.  Results of a double blind study on the effect of Silymarin in the treatment of acute viral hepatitis, carried out at two medical centres.  Med Klin.  73:1060-1065, 1978.
9. Abascal, K., et al.  The many faces of Silybum marianum (milk thistle):  part 2 - clinical uses, safety, and types of preparations.  Alternative & Complementary Therapies.  9(5):251-256, 2003.
10. Campos, R, et al.  Silybin dihemisuccinate protects against glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation induced by acetaminophen on rat liver.  Planta Medica.  55(4):417-419, 1989.
11. Sonnenbichler, J., et al.  Stimulatory effects of silibinin and silichristin from the milk thistle Silybum marianum on kidney cells.  J Pharmacol Exp Ther.  290(3):1375-1383, 1999.
12. Turgut F, Bayrak O, Catal F, Bayrak R, Atmaca AF, Koc A, Akbas A, Akcay A, Unal D. Antioxidant and protective effects of Silymarin on ischemia and reperfusion injury in the kidney tissues of rats: Int Urol Nephrol. 2008;40(2):453-60.
13. Cabrera, C.  Milk thistle:  a clinician's report.  Medical Herbalism.  6(1), 1994.
14. Baer-Dubowska W, et al.  Inhibition of murine hepatic cytochrome P450 activities by natural and synthetic phenolic compounds.  Xenobiotica.  28:735-743, 1998.

15. Halim, A. B., et al.  Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in experimentally-induced liver damage.  Ann Clin Biochem. 34:656-663, 1997.


T

Thuja

Thuja is used in the treatment of warts, viral infections, common cold, acute sinusitis and urinary tract infections (with Echinacea). Topically Thuja is used in the treatment of warts and fungal infections of the skin. Traditionally Thuja was also used in the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial catarrh, intermittent fever, bedwetting, cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), urinary incontinence, urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), psoriasis, rheumatism, enlarged prostate, amenorrhoea (absence of menstrual period), enlarged prostate, uterine carcinoma, disorders of the blood and glands and to counter the ill effects of the smallpox vaccination. Topically it was also used for the treatment of worms, skin ulcers, bedsores, infections of the skin, rheumatism, to stop haemorrhage caused by uterine tumour, leucorrhoea (vaginal discharge) and carcinomatous ulcerations.

Contraindications: pregnancy and breastfeeding, avoid in epilepsy. Do not exceed recommended dose.

Thyme

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Thyme is used in the treatment of acute or chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma, cough, whooping cough, upper respiratory catarrh, sore throat, laryngitis (loss of voice), common cold, dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain), chronic gastritis, diarrhoea and bedwetting. Topically Thyme can be used for tonsillitis, sore throat, stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth), gingivitis (gum inflammation) and halitosis (bad breath). Traditionally Thyme was also used in the treatment of flatulence, hysteria, period pain, and as a stimulating tonic in convalescence after an exhausting illness.

Contraindications: avoid in known allergy.

Tienchi Ginseng

Tienchi Ginseng is a wonderful herb used by herbalists to stem the flow of blood loss. It is thereby useful in treating menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding), uterine haemorrhage, metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding not associated with menstrual period), gastrointestinal bleeding, haematuria (blood in the urine), haemoptysis (coughing up blood), hematemesis (vomiting blood), melena (blood in stools), haematoma (bruises), angina, cardiac arrhythmias, high cholesterol levels and to assist with weight loss. Traditionally Tienchi Ginseng was also used in the treatment of sharp pain of the chest or abdomen and any swelling or pain caused by trauma.

Contraindications: pregnancy, anticoagulant drugs.

Tribulus Leaf

Tribulus Leaf is a wonderful herb from India used to treat male sexual dysfunction such as male infertility, impotence, low sperm count and low libido. Tribulus Leaf is also beneficial in treating female infertility, menopausal symptoms, polycystic ovary syndrome, fatigue, convalescence, physical stress and to improve physical or exercise performance.

Contraindications: may cause or aggravate gastro-oesophageal reflux and caution in patients with pre-existing cholestasis (reduction or stoppage of bile flow).

Turkey Tail Mushroom

This herb is used in our Immune Boost Herbal Blend.

Turkey Tail Mushroom - also known as the Karawatake Mushroom is a medicinal mushroom from Japan which has been shown to stimulate the activity of macrophages and production of natural killer cell lymphocytes 1.

References:
1. Jeong, S. C., et al. Macrophage-stimulating activity of polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail Mushroom). Journal of Medicinal Food. 9(2):175-181, 2006.

Turmeric

Greg Newson - Vitality & Wellness Centre

Turmeric is a potent anti-inflammatory and is used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, myalgia (muscle pain), pain of unknown origin, peptic ulcer and dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating, upset stomach, burping and/or stomach pain). It is also used for asthma, oxidative stress (antioxidant), high cholesterol, as an adjuvant therapy (increases chances of cure) for precancerous conditions and to enhance phase 1 and phase 2 liver detoxification pathways. Traditionally Turmeric was also used in the treatment of poor digestion, liver disorders, diarrhoea, vomiting in pregnancy, fevers, common cold, catarrhal cough, leprosy and snakebite. Topically it was also used in the treatment of conjunctivitis, skin infections, ulcers, wounds, arthritis and eczema.

Contraindications: caution in high doses with patients taking antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs.

This herb is used in our Liver Detox Herbal Blend and Inflammatory Support Herbal Blend.

Turmeric;

- May regulate phase 1 and phase 2 liver detoxification pathways 1, 2. Turmeric may help to reverse the liver damage caused by Aflatoxin 3. Turmeric may stimulate the flow of bile and may alleviate inflammation of the gallbladder 4, 5. Traditionally Turmeric is used for liver disorders and dysfunction, poor digestion and jaundice with dark urine.

- May reduce inflammation due to its powerful anti-inflammatory substances called curcuminoids and turmerin 6. Turmeric inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 (a substance in the body which speeds up the production of inflammatory messengers which contribute to pain) 7. Mobic, Viaox, Celebrex are drugs called cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitors which may cause potential side effects.

References:
1. Sharma RA et al.  Eur J Cancer 2005; 41: 1955
2. Iqbal M et al.  Pharmacol Toxicol 2003; 92: 33
3. Soni, K. B.  Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.  Cancer Letters.  66(2):115, 1992.
4. Ammon, H. P., et al.  Pharmacology of Curcuma longa.  Planta Medica.  57(1):1-7, 1991.
5. Moga, M. M.  Alternative treatment of gallbladder disease.  Medical Hypotheses.  60(1):143-147, 2003.

6. Arora, R. B., et al.  Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa.  Ind J Med Res.  59:1289, 1971.
7. Plummer, S., et al.  Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involve inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex.  Oncogene. 

U

Uva-Ursi

See Bearberry.

Herbs should always be prescribed by a Qualified Herbalist who has the knowledge in treating disease. In some instances certain herbs can have contraindications in use, so it is important they are administered by a Certified Practitioner trained in Herbal Medicine.